This report was heavily informed by the work of western researchers and Chinese social credit theorists. Below, we list and link to the key experts and sources that underpin this piece.
Daithi Mac Sithigh and Mathias Siems: In their January 2019 work, “The Chinese social credit system: A model for other countries?” these researchers from the European University Institute Department of Law juxtapose China’s social credit systems against similar systems outside of China.
Genia Kostka: Genia Kostka is a researcher at the Free University of Berlin. Her piece, “China’s Social Credit Systems and Public Opinion: Explaining High Levels of Approval“, is a fascinating exploration of the Chinese public’s reaction to the SCS, and includes detailed results of on-the-ground public opinion surveys conducted on over 2,000 SCS participants.
Jeremy Daum: Jeremy Daum is a fellow at Yale Law School’s Paul Tsai China Center and the brains behind China Law Translate. Mr. Daum is a leading voice on the social credit system, and was the first Western scholar to dig into the policies behind the blacklisting system in any real depth.
Lin Junyue 林钧跃: Hailed as “the father of social credit theory”, sociologist Lin Junyue first proposed the idea of a social credit system in his seminal 1999 work, “The National Credit Management System” (国家信用管理体系). His subsequent work, “Social Credit System Theory” (社会信用体系原理), released in 2003, has heavily informed national policy. The SCS as it exists today largely mirrors the one Lin proposed almost 20 years ago.
Marianne Von Blomberg: Marianne Von Blomberg’s piece, “The Social Credit System and China’s Rule of Law“, is a deep dive into the SCS’s relationship to the Chinese legal system.
Mirjam Meissner: Mirjam Meissner is a senior analyst at Sinolytics, and has been instrumental in exploring the ramifications of the social credit system in the enterprise context. Her related work for Merics included “China’s Social Credit System: A big-data enabled approach to market regulation with broad implications for doing business in China”, and Social Credit System Implementation.
Rogier Creemers: University of Leiden scholar Rogier Creemers’ work, “China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control“, is an excellent overview of the SCS as a whole.
Samantha Hoffman: Dr. Hoffman is a research consultant at the International Institute for Strategic Studies specializing in the fields of “Cyber, Space and Future Conflict and Defense, and Military Analysis”. She has written extensively on social credit, including a piece for the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, “Social Credit: Technology-Enhanced Authoritarian Control with Global Consequences“.
Shazeda Ahmed: Shazeda Ahmed’s piece, Cashless Society, Cached Data Security Considerations for a Chinese Social Credit System, examines private SCS Sesame Credit and its relationship to the national SCS.
Wu Weihai 吴维海: Wu Weihai is an academic and member of NDRC-affiliated think tank. His book, “Credit of a Great Nation” (大国信用), explores the social credit system through the eyes of Chinese regulators, and presents the SCS as a holistic mechanism directed at individuals, companies, and the government itself.